History of Masks - Ancient Use of Masks
Masks are objects that cover the face for variety of reasons. They are used for protection, disguise, entertainment or ritual practices and are made from
various materials, depending of use. Earliest use of masks was for rituals and ceremonies, and the oldest found mask is from 7000 BC. Art of making masks
could be older but because of the materials used for making them (leather and wood), they did not survive to this day. Oldest masks were of ritual purpose
and could be found in many places of the world. They are generally similar in their overall appearance, but very different in style and way they are made
In Africa, ritual masks are used in many different ways. In West Africa, they are used in ceremonies which purpose is to communicate with ancestral
spirits. They are made out of wood, with great skill and such masks are used in ritual masquerades of Edo, Yoruba and Igbo cultures. Beside human faces,
many African masks are made in the shapes of the animals. It is believed in some African tribes that they make possible to communicate with animals spirits
of savannas and forests. One of the more common masks is an antelope. It is believed that an antelope have thought people agriculture or that it symbolizes
a farmer. Some tribes make mask as symbols of different attributes. Mask with closed eyes symbolize tranquility while bulging forehead symbolizes wisdom.
War masks are made to scare the enemy with big eyes, painted colors and anger of the carved face.
History of masks began some 9000 years ago. From that moment masks were made and used in thousands of different ways and became inseparable from our lives. Find out more about mask history.(more)
There are so many different masks as there are cultures. And even more. Many different influences affected how masks are made and used. You can read some interesting facts about masks here.(more)
There are many popular masks around the world that can be categorized by different criteria. Masks can be used in rituals, ceremonies, hunting, feasts, wars, performances, theatres, fashion, sports, movies, as well as in medical, protective or occupational purposes. Masks can also be used as ornamentation. There are many masks around the world, find out more about them.(more)
Inuit tribes of Northern America vary widely so their masks differ form each other in many ways. Pacific Northwest coastal groups have very skilled
woodworkers that make complex masks made from wood, leather, bones and feathers, with movable parts and of great beauty. They are used in shamanic rituals
that represent unity between men, their ancestors and animals that men hunt. They are also used in exorcising of evil spirits from the sick.
In Oceania, where the culture of the ancestral worship is very strong, masks are made to represent ancestors. Big masks, some six meter-high are used as a
protection from evil spirits.
Ancient Aztecs, in Latin America, used masks to cover the faces of the dead. They made them from leather in the beginning, but later started making them
from copper and gold.
Except for ritual purposes, from the ancient times masks were used in theatre. Oldest theatre masks are from Ancient Greece and masks used in traditional
Japanese Noh drama. In time, masks are used in medieval theatre in mystery and miracle plays, during Renaissance as well as today.
Masks are also used for protection - for example: welding masks that protect eyes and face of the welder form bright light and flying sparks; gas mask that
protects from dangerous gases; shield masks on helmets, from gladiators to modern police. There are also medical masks for oxygen supply, surgical masks
that protect doctors and patients from infecting each other as well as many more.
- Japanese Masks
Japanese masks are used traditionally in theater, festivals or rituals. They are connected to folk myths and tails. Masks represent people, creatures, devil, ghosts, and animals. Some of the Japanese traditional masks are Gigaku, Bugaku, Gyodo, Tengu, Kappa, Noh, Kyōgen, Shinto, Kagura, Kitsune, Hyottoko, Oni, Kabuki, Samurai, Kendo and Animegao masks.
- Hannya Mask
The Hannya mask represents jealous female demon in noh and kyōgen Japanese traditional theater plays and Shinto Kagura ritual dances. The mask has a learing mouth, sharp teeth, metallic eyes and two sharp devil-like horns. The expression of Hannya mask is at the same time demonic, angry, frightening, dangerous and tormented, sad, heartbreaking, melancholic and sorrowful. She begins as typical female, but when she is betrayed, get angry and jealous she turns into a demon.
- Kitsune Mask
Kitsune mask is a mask of a fox. In Japanese culture, Fox has contradictory behavior. It can be benevolent (good) or malevolent (evil) depending on the situation. In Shinto religion, Fox is a messenger of the god Inari, who is the protector of rice, agriculture, and fertility. Fox brings rich harvest, and it is a symbol of wealth.
- History of African Tribal Masks
African culture used masks in rituals from the earliest days of human civilization. They are the most commonly used for purpose of communicating with spirits and bringing them in our plane. Learn more about African masks.
- History of Egyptian Masks
Ancient Egypt had a characteristic relation with masks. Because of ubiquity of religion and its mysteriousness masks were practically used as a method for transformation from mundane to the divine. Read more about history of Egyptian Masks.
- History of Dance Masks
Topeng dance is one of many applications of masks in the human life. It is a traditional dance drama that is played in Indonesia and tells a variety of stories. Read more about topeng dance history and facts.
- History of Venetian Carnival Masks
One of the things for which the Venice is famous is Carnival in Venice. One of the things Carnival in Venice is famous are masks. Learn more about history of Venetian carnival masks.